|What is Citizenship Education?|
|1.What is the background of Citizenship Education?|
Nowadays, we can find that our society faces a lot of serious problems, for example NEET which is an acronym for "young people Not in Education, Employment or Training," impotent feeling of the individual in mass society, and political apathy, as you know decreasing voting rate may be. So, many people has said that we must teach social responsibility, compliance with the law, involvement in local or wider community to young people, who'll be in charge of a future society.
With the social backgrounds, Citizenship Education has been taught in many countries especially in EU. For instance, in England, Citizenship Education started as a statutory subject in secondary schools.( On the other hand, it has been tought as a part of PSHE(Personal Social and Health Education) in primary schools)
Also the education profession in Japan interested in such a subject. But in Japan, Civic Education has taught until now. What is the differnce between Citizenship and Civic Education?
|2.What is the difference between Citizenship Edcation and Civic Education?|
Civic Education is concerned more with democratic processes and people's involement with that process at all levels. With citizenship the concern is much wider. Partly it is about political engagement but it is also importantly about developing the skills - and practising them - for responsible citizenship.
For example, being responsible and respectful, understanding how one person's behaviour can affect others and their communities and caring about others.
In Japan, Civic Education ends up being just knowledge transmission or memorization. Many people has critisized such a teaching style, because it is lack of pupil's understanding of democratic society, skills, and attitudes to it.
|3.What is Citizenship Education? -Aim and 3 Keywords|
"The purpose of citizenship education in schools and colleges is to make secure and to increase the knowledge, skills and values relevant to the nature and practices of participative democracy; also to enhance the awareness of rights and duties, and the sense of responsibilities needed for the development of pupils into active citizens; and in so doing to establish the value to individuals, schools and society of involvement in the local and wider community."
Education for citizenship and the teaching of democracy in schools, Final report of the Advisory Group on Citizenship 22 September 1998
Crick report says that Citizenship Education is made of the three strands, social and moral responsibility, community involvement, and political literacy.
Social and moral responsibility:
Pupils learning - from the beginning - self-confidence and socially and morally responsible behaviour, both in and beyond the classroom, towards those in authority and towards each other.
Pupils learning about becoming helpfully involved in the life and concerns of their school, neighbourhood and wider communities, including learning through community involvement and service.
Pupils learning about the institutions, issues, problems and practices of our democracy and how citizens can make themselves effective in public life, locally, regionally and nationally through skills and values as well as knowledge.
'Citizenship is more than a statutory subject. If taught well and tailored to local needs, its skills and values will enhance democratic life for us all, both rights and responsibilities, beginning in school and radiating out.'
Professor Bernard Crick, Birkbeck College, London.
|4.What's the possibilities of Citizenship Education in the world?|
Citizenship Education deals with `controversial issues.'
"Education should not attempt to shelter our nation's children from even the harsher controversies of adult life, but should prepare them to deal with such controversies knowledgeably, sensibly, tolerantly and normally."
Advisory Group on Citizenship Education.
In Japan, many teachers have avoided dealing with controversial issues, such as current topics about politics, ethics,etc. We need to teach such a topics so as to develop pupils' citizenship and the understanding of democratic society. In addition to this, we try to deliver Citizenship Education not only in Japan but also in the world.